Ubuntu upgrade resulting in a no sound situation

After working happily a couple of months with Ubuntu 10.04 I installed a new kernel with the update feature. This resulted in not having any sound or volume controls. After reading a lot on internet articles  I found the following article… Comprehensive Sound Problem Solutions Guide v0.5e I followed the following commands that brought back sound to my notebook.

Getting the ALSA drivers from a *fresh* kernel

Sometimes, sound might be configured correctly, but for some reason or another (tinkering) it stops working. One way to go back to the old setup is to reinstall Ubuntu. However, this step is actually quite unnecessary since you are reinstalling everything because of one thing.

A faster way, is to just remove the problematic packages and reinstall them cleanly.

Step – 1: Remove these packages


sudo apt-get –purge remove linux-sound-base alsa-base alsa-utils

Step – 2: Reinstall those same packages


sudo apt-get install linux-sound-base alsa-base alsa-utils


VERY IMPORTANT NOTE: Ubuntu (GNOME) users have reported that packages ‘gdm’ and ‘ubuntu-desktop’ are removed after removing the linux-sound-base packages. If this happens, then do the following


sudo apt-get install gdm ubuntu-desktop

Step – 3: Reboot

Using Excel’s conditional formatting to colorize the weekends

In this period of the year most of us are starting to make plans for next year, Excel is an incedibly powerfull tool that can help you visualize your plans. Using Excel’s conditional formatting you can colorize the weekends and make them standout more than the other days of the week or vice versa. This article is an How to colorize the weekends in Excel using conditional formatting.

To colorize the weekends in Excel using conditional formatting, based upon the date in column B, you can use the following formula:



To create a rule using conditional formatting:

  • Select the cells that you want to apply the conditional formatting to.
  • Click “Conditional Formatting”.
  • Choose “New Rule”.
  • In the “New Formatting Rule” dialog box, choose “Use a formula”.
  • Under “Format values”, type the formula: =IF(OR(WEEKDAY($B2)=1;WEEKDAY($B2)=7);1;0)
  • The formula uses the dates in column B (You can select your own column with dates, by replacing the $B2 part in the formula with the column letter of your choice).
  • Click “Format”.
  • In the “Color” box, select your favourite color.
  • Click “OK” until all dialog boxes are closed.


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Give your Raspberry Pi a fixed IP address

Having a fixed (or static) IP address on your Raspberry Pi, comes in handy if you want to access your Raspberry Pi from the internet (for a how to about port forwarding, read this article). As you might want to use ownCloud for instance.

You can give your Raspberry Pi a fixed IP address by editting the network interfaces file.

But first, we are making a backup of the old configuration!

sudo cp /etc/network/interfaces /etc/network/interfaces.bak


Next thing is, editing the network interfaces file:

sudo nano /etc/network/interfaces


Although the IP address you want to use might be different, make your /etc/network/interfaces look like this:

auto eth0                                     # The loopback interface

iface eth0 inet static              # Tells your Raspberry Pi to use a static IP address

address            # Defines the static ip address
gateway              # Defines the gateway to use (choose the IP address of your modem)
netmask     # Defines the subnet mask

network             # Defines the network family
broadcast    # Defines the network family


You can save the adjustments you made to your /etc/network/interfaces file by pressing ctrl o

Press ctrl x to exit


After saving your new settings, you need to activate them by restarting your network components:

sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart


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Getting Broadcom STA to work on Ubuntu Studio 13.04 or Xubuntu

As I upgraded Ubuntu Studio 12.10 to Ubuntu Studio 13.04 on my Mac Book 5.1 my wireless stopped working… After surfing the internet for a couple of days I’ve found the following solution to enable the Broadcom STA on my Mac Book 5.1.

Check whether Ubuntu sees your Broadcom STA device by running the lspci command from a terminal:

lspci | grep Network


After using the the lspci command you should get something like this:

03:00.0 Network controller: Broadcom Corporation BCM4322 802.11a/b/g/n Wireless LAN Controller (rev 01)


Next up is, installing the drivers. To install the drivers run the following command using the terminal:

sudo apt-get install firmware-b43-installer


The broadcom-sta-common package, blacklists the b43 driver.

To fix this you need to edit the file: /etc/modprobe.d/broadcom-sta-dkms.conf


You can do that by using the following command in the terminal:

sudo nano /etc/modprobe.d/broadcom-sta-dkms.conf


Delete or comment out with a “#” the line “blacklist b43”, my file looks like this:

# wl module from Broadcom conflicts with the following modules:
# blacklist b43
blacklist b43legacy
blacklist b44
blacklist bcma
blacklist brcm80211
blacklist brcmsmac
blacklist ssb


Then to force the module to load during boot by using the following command in the terminal:

sudo nano /etc/modules


Then add a line with “b43”, my /etc/modules file looks like this:

# /etc/modules: kernel modules to load at boot time.
# This file contains the names of kernel modules that should be loaded
# at boot time, one per line. Lines beginning with “#” are ignored.


You don’t need to reboot your computer as you can load the module manually by entering the following command in the terminal:

sudo modprobe b43


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Remove X or create a headless server on a Raspberry Pi

As I use my Raspberry Pi as a headless server, I thought it would be a good idea to clean up unnecessary files. After studying some material from others and several attempts later, I distilled the following steps…

Login to your Raspberry Pi, so open a terminal and use SSH…

Step – 1: To get rid of orphaned files later, we are going to install a program called deborphan first:

sudo apt-get install deborphan


Step – 2: Next we are going to remove all desktops from your Raspbian (if you don’t want to remove samba, remove it from the following command!):

sudo apt-get remove –auto-remove –purge libx11-.* lxde-.* raspberrypi-artwork xkb-data omxplayer penguinspuzzle sgml-base xml-core cifs-.* samba-.* fonts-.* desktop-* gnome-.*


Step – 3: Now we are going to remove all orphaned files:

sudo apt-get remove –purge $(deborphan)


Step – 4: After that it is time to remove the unnecessary packages that are not orphaned:

sudo apt-get autoremove


Step – 5: You can even free up more space by removing the locales:

sudo apt-get install locale:purge:
sudo localepurge


Step – 6: Clean up some more:

sudo apt-get clean


Step – 7: You might need to reinstall the following packages for squeezelite:

sudo apt-get install -y libflac-dev libfaad2 libmad0


Step – 8: Reboot If you want, else stop start the service:

sudo shutdown -r now


By doing a “before and after“, you can see the difference:

df -h /dev/root


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